## Problem

Problem ID: 309

Title: Best Time to Buy and Sell Stock with Cooldown

Difficulty: Medium

Description: You are given an array prices where prices[i] is the price of a given stock on the ith day.

Find the maximum profit you can achieve. You may complete as many transactions as you like (i.e., buy one and sell one share of the stock multiple times) with the following restrictions:

After you sell your stock, you cannot buy stock on the next day (i.e., cooldown one day). Note: You may not engage in multiple transactions simultaneously (i.e., you must sell the stock before you buy again).

## Thoughts

I found this problem very difficult and had to look at the solution. I was not able to understand the solution initially and had to slowly attempt it again before finally being able to understand it.

## Solution

General Idea

We will keep track of two separate states; what is the maximum profit if the last action till i inclusive is buy or sell and the answer would be max profit if the last action on day n-1 is sell.

DP states

• buy[i]
• Represents the max profit if the last action till day i(inclusive) is buy.
• This means that we could either buy the stock on i or buy on i-1, i-2,… but from i-k+1 till i we cannot perform any action.
• buy[0] = -prices.front(): we will need to deduct the cost of stock from our current profit(\$0) if we choose to buy on day 1
• sell[i]
• Represents the max profit if the last action till day i(inclusive) is sell.
• This means that we could either sell the stock on i or buy on i-1, i-2,… but from i-k+1 till i we cannot perform any action.
• sell[0] = 0: We will not make any profit we sell on day 0

DP transitions:

• buy[i] = max(buy[i-1], i > 1 ? sell[i-2] - prices[i] : -prices[i]);
• buy[i-1]: We can either no do anything (carry the max buy from previous day)
• i > 1? sell[i-2] - prices[i] : -prices: We could take the profit from selling on i-2, take i-1 as a cool down day and buy on i
• sell[i] = max(sell[i-1], buy[i-1] + prices[i])
• sell[i-1] We can either don’t do anything
• buy[i-1] + prices[i]: sell at price[i]
• As buy has -prices[i], this means that buy[i-1] already contain the lowest cost to buy the stock. Thus we could simply add prices[i] to count the profit

### Implementation

class Solution {
public:
int maxProfit(vector<int>& prices) {
int n = prices.size();